Understanding the Challenge Procedure Under Section 13 of The Arbitration and Conciliation Act

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Title: Understanding the Challenge Procedure Under Section 13 of The Arbitration and Conciliation Act: An Expert Analysis from SimranLaw


Navigating through the labyrinth of legal procedures and understanding complex legislations can often be a daunting task. In this article, we delve deep into one such crucial provision – Section 13 of The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Act’). Our legal experts at SimranLaw, with their extensive experience and in-depth knowledge of the subject matter, dissect the intricacies of this section, making it accessible and comprehensive.

Section 13 – Challenge Procedure:

Section 13 of the Act deals with the procedures for challenging an arbitrator. This section is premised on the foundational principles of natural justice, which require a decision-making authority to be impartial and free from bias. It provides an aggrieved party a chance to contest an arbitrator’s appointment if they believe there exists justifiable doubts about his impartiality or independence, or he does not possess the qualifications agreed to by the parties.

The Pathway to Challenge:

The challenge procedure under this section is initiated by a party sending a written statement detailing the reasons for the challenge to the arbitral tribunal. This should be done as soon as they become aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of any circumstance which makes the arbitrator’s impartiality questionable.

Case Laws & Judgements:

1. Voestalpine Schienen GMBH v Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (2017)

This case elucidates the principles surrounding ‘justifiable doubts’ about an arbitrator’s independence or impartiality. The Supreme Court held that an arbitrator closely linked with a party in a dispute would cast reasonable doubts on his independence, thereby justifying a challenge under Section 13.

2. HRD Corporation v GAIL India Ltd (2017)

In this case, the Supreme Court emphasised that the time limit specified under Section 13 is a mandatory requirement. The court ruled that a challenge to an arbitrator should be made within 15 days from when the party became aware of the arbitrator’s appointment or learned of circumstances implying his possible bias. Any delay beyond this statutory limit would invalidate the challenge.

3. Perkins Eastman Architects DPC & Another v HSCC India Ltd (2019)

In this landmark case, the Supreme Court held that a person with an interest in the outcome of the dispute cannot appoint an arbitrator. The judgement underscored the importance of maintaining the integrity and independence of arbitration proceedings.


The Act’s challenge procedure under Section 13 is emblematic of its commitment to ensuring fair, credible, and independent arbitration. The jurisprudential evolution through various judgements has significantly contributed to strengthening this provision, ensuring that it continuously upholds the principles of natural justice.

Understanding the complexities and nuances of law is not an uphill battle when you have experienced professionals at hand to guide you. At SimranLaw, we are committed to providing our readers with nuanced and practical insights into complex legal issues, enabling them to navigate the law’s labyrinth confidently and competently.

Disclaimer: This article seeks to provide general information on the subject matter and should not be considered as legal advice for specific situations. For legal assistance, please consult with an attorney experienced in this field of law.

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