Search this article on Google: What are the key legal provisions related to Climate Change in India and how are they helping to mitigate its impact?
Climate change is a global issue with severe implications, and India, as the world’s fourth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, is equally at the helm of this crisis. However, it is worth noting the efforts made through policy and legal provisions to mitigate its impact. At SimranLaw, we believe in giving our readers an in-depth understanding of these complex legal issues. Hence, we delve into the key legal provisions related to climate change in India and how they have been instrumental in mitigating its impact.
1. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986:
Amidst rising concerns on environmental degradation, the government enacted The Environment (Protection) Act in 1986. This act not only grants the government sweeping powers to implement measures required for protecting the environment but also provides the framework for coordination between different authorities established under this act and other laws.
The central government can establish environmental laboratories, set standards for emission or discharge of pollutants, and inspect pollution controls. All these provisions aim to significantly reduce the impacts of climate change.
2. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008:
Launched in 2008, NAPCC proposes a multi-pronged, long-term, and integrated approach for climate change mitigation and adaptation. It covers eight missions: Solar mission, enhanced energy efficiency mission, sustainable habitat mission, conserving water mission, sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem mission, Green India mission, sustainable agriculture mission, and a strategic knowledge mission for climate change.
3. The Energy Conservation Act, 2001:
This act aims at efficient use of energy and conservation, by setting standards for energy-consuming appliances. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency implements this act by carrying out programs like star labeling of appliances and conducting energy audits.
Case Laws and Judgments:
Several judgments by the Indian judiciary have also played significant roles in environmental protection.
a. M.C Mehta v Union of India (1986): In this landmark case known as the Oleum Gas Leak Case, the Supreme Court laid down the principle of Absolute Liability, holding industries strictly accountable for any harm caused due to hazardous substances released into the environment.
b. Vellore Citizens Forum v Union of India (1996): This case marked the inception of the ‘Sustainable Development’ principle in Indian environmental jurisprudence. The court held that sustainable development should be a guiding factor while making decisions related to development and the environment.
c. T.N Godavarman Thirumulpad v Union of India (2012): Known as the Forest Case, this judgment expanded the definition of ‘forest,’ leading to an increase in forest land across India. It also led to better enforcement of the Forest Conservation Act.
India’s efforts towards climate change mitigation are reflected in its legal provisions that consider both environmental protection and sustainable development. The stringent enforcement of these laws is pivotal in minimizing climate change impacts.
At SimranLaw, we believe that a deeper understanding of these laws can not only contribute to individual actions towards climate change mitigation but also encourage engagements at various levels to ensure their implementation. Understanding these provisions is thus the first step towards building a greener and more sustainable future.